Graham calls the counter-argument „the first form of persuasive disagreements“ and says we can normally ignore the DH0-3 level. These instruments of evaluation, as we argue with each other, can go a long way to regain some courtesy in our discourse by avoiding unproductive forms of disagreement. Whether it`s his trolls from other nations or our own trolls and confused minds, the conversation on the Internet leaves much to be desired for many Americans. It`s hard not to see it as a social disease. This is a form of disagreement that is a little more developed when the debate shifts from personal attacks to confrontation with the content of the argument. The lowest form of reaction to writing is to disagree with the tone of the author, according to Graham. One could, for example, draw attention to the „cavalry“ or „creepy“ attitude with which a writer has expressed his opinion. But why is it really important, especially if the judgment of the tone can be quite subjective? If you stick to the material, Graham advises you: „It is much more important to know if the author is false or fair than what is his.“ In the meantime, the types of discrepancies often take the form of logical errors. These have been beautifully catalogued here. The ad hominem attack is just one of dozens of possible deceptions. Even if a person does not make a logical mistake, they may still experience cognitive bias. These prejudices can lead us to ineffective forms of disagreement without us realizing it. This master infographic classifies a lot of cognitive biases and some logical errors.
This document presents Graham`s „hierarchy of disagreement,“ which lists several steps between teens` name calls and the careful refutation of an error in your opponent`s central point. Graham also saw his hierarchy as a way to eliminate dishonest arguments or „fake news“ in modern language. Powerful words are only a „quality of definition of a demagogue,“ he stressed. By understanding the different forms of their disagreement, „we give critical readers a pin to slam such balloons,“ Graham wrote. The pyramid of disagreements can also be rewritten as a set of rules. Note that 4 to 7 on the pyramid are fall arguments, so it is best to avoid them completely. However, there is not always a clear point where one step in the hierarchy moves to another (although that does not mean that there is no difference between states). The sound argument – 5 – may also be valid in cases where the tone is relevant to the discussion.